In today’s technology-driven age, cybersecurity is of utmost importance as everyone in the world is connected to each other. Our phones, TVs, and even the devices we use to read books are connected to the internet. As a major portion of our lives depends on the internet, there are greater chances of the internet taking control of our lives in ways unimaginable. This is where cybersecurity steps in as we need some force that protects us from outside forces that wish to do us harm.
With the number of cyberattacks on the rise every day, the demand for cybersecurity jobs is increasing. With demand comes competition and hence, it is important to be one among the best. For that, it is essential to have two things: cybersecurity skills and the ability to crack the interview. While cybersecurity skills can be learned through the umpteen number of professional online cybersecurity certifications available, cracking the interview is the most crucial step. To ease it out for you, we have compiled the top 10 cybersecurity interview questions which will help you crack the interview.
Must-know interview questions on cybersecurity
1. What Is Cybersecurity?
Cybersecurity involves protecting inter-connected systems like hardware, software, electronic data, etc. The main purpose of cybersecurity is to prevent data breaches, identity theft, and cyberattacks which can help in risk management. If an organization has a strong sense of network security and an effective incident response plan, it will be easier for it to prevent and mitigate cyberattacks.
2. Differentiate Threat, Vulnerability, And Risk
Threat refers to someone or something which has the potential to induce harm by destroying or damaging the official data of a system or organization. The best example of this is the phishing attack.
Vulnerability refers to the weaknesses in a system that makes threat outcomes possible and dangerous. The ideal example is cross-site scripting, SQL injections.
Risk is a combination of impact/loss and the probability of a threat. This is related to potential loss or damage.
3. What Is Cross-Site Scripting?
Cross-site scripting is one where the aim of the attacker is to execute malicious scripts in the web browser of the victim. He does this by including malicious code in a legitimate web application or web page. The web page or web application transforms into a vehicle that delivers the malicious script to the browser. The common vulnerable vehicles used for cross-site scripting are message boards, forums, and web pages allowing comments.
4. What Is VPN?
VPN refers to Virtual Private Network. It helps create a safe and encrypted connection over less secure networks such as the public internet. VPN makes use of tunnelling protocols to encrypt data at the sending end and decrypt it at the receiving end. In order to provide additional security, the originating and receiving network addresses are also encrypted. The whole purpose of VPN is to ensure encrypted data transfer.
5. How Can One Prevent Identity Theft?
- Avoid sharing confidential information online.
- Make sure that the password is unique and strong.
- Upgrade to the latest browser versions.
- Carry out online shopping from known and trusted websites.
- Conduct regular software and system updates.
- Install specialized security solutions for financial data.
- Protect your Social Security Number (SSN). It is a unique nine-digit identification number that is assigned by the government.
6. Who Are Black Hat, White Hat, And Grey Hat Hackers?
Black hat hackers have a vast knowledge about breaking into computer networks. They have the ability to write malware which can help gain access to systems. These hackers misuse their skills to use the hacked system for malicious purposes or to steal information.
White hat hackers are also called ethical hackers as they put their skills to good use. They are hired as security analysts by companies that attempt to find and fix vulnerabilities and security gaps in the systems. They use their skills to enhance security.
Grey hat hackers are a combination of white hat and black hat hackers. They do not obtain the owner’s permission to look for system vulnerabilities. They inform the owner if any vulnerabilities are detected. Unlike black hat hackers, they will not exploit the vulnerabilities found.
7. Steps To Take To Secure A Server?
Secure servers make use of the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) for data encryption and decryption to protect unauthorized access to data.
Simple ways to secure your server are:
- Have a secure password for your root and administrator users.
- Make new users on your system. These users will be used to manage the system.
- Remove remote access from default administrator or root accounts.
- Configure firewall rules for remote access.
8. Explain The CIA Triad
CIA refers to confidentiality, integrity, and availability. It is a model designed to guide information security policies. It is a popular model used in organizations.
Confidentiality- The information must be accessed and read solely by authorized personnel. The information must be encrypted if someone makes use of hacking to access the data. It must be such that even if the data is accessed, it must be in a format that cannot be read or understood.
Integrity- This refers to making sure that the data is not modified by an unauthorized entity. This makes sure that data is free from modification or corruption by unauthorized personnel. If an authorized system or individual tries to modify the data, but the modification wasn’t successful, then the data must be reversed back and must not be corrupted.
Availability- The data must be available to the user whenever he needs it. Maintaining and upgrading hardware regularly, network bottlenecks, and data backups and recovery must be taken care of.
9. What Is a Firewall? How Can It Be Implemented?
A firewall refers to a system designed to prevent unauthorized access to or from a private network. It is a set of related programs that are located at the network gateway server and protect the resources of the private network from the users of other networks. It protects the systems from viruses, worms, malware, etc.
The steps to take to configure a firewall are:
- Change the default password for a firewall device.
- Disable the feature of remote administration.
- Configure port forwarding to allow certain applications like an FTP server or a web server to function properly.
- Firewall installation on a network that has an existing DHCP server can cause errors until the DHCP of the firewall is disabled.
- Make sure that the firewall is configured to robust security policies.
10. Explain Any Two Cyberattacks
- Malware- This refers to malicious software, which breaches a network through a vulnerability. In case a user clicks on a dangerous link or email attachment, it then installs risky software.
- Phishing- In phishing, a hacker disguises as a trustworthy person or business and attempts to steal sensitive financial or personal information through instant message or fraudulent email.
Today, the threats of data leaks and breaches, malware, ransomware, etc. are prevalent across the globe. According to several news reports, the growth rate of cyber attacks is increasing to a great extent each day. Reports also predict that the number of unfilled jobs in cybersecurity will reach 3.5 million by the end of 2021. The number of open positions is also expected to triple in the next five years. This implies that the current job opportunities for cybersecurity professionals are highly promising. Having said that, we hope that these top ten cybersecurity interview questions list of questions would provide you with the required amount of knowledge to become sought-after cybersecurity professional. If you are interested to know more about the cybersecurity certifications offered for the same, you can log on to https://www.globaltechcouncil.org